Friday, 26 September 2014


What LEED Is

 LEED, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is redefining the way we think about the places where we live, work and learn. As an internationally recognized mark of excellence, LEED provides building owners and operators with a framework for identifying and implementing practical and measurable green building design, construction, operations and maintenance solutions.
With nearly 9 billion square feet of building space participating in the suite of rating systems and 1.6 million feet certifying per day around the world, LEED is transforming the way built environments are designed, constructed, and operated --- from individual buildings and homes, to entire neighborhoods and communities. Comprehensive and flexible, LEED works throughout a building's  life cycle.
LEED certification provides independent, third-party verification that a building, home or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at achieving high performance in key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental quality.
Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) in 2000, the LEED rating systems are developed through an open, consensus-based process led by LEED committees. The next update of the LEED rating system, coined LEED 2012, is the next step in the continuous improvement process and on-going development cycle of LEED.

Architect Scott M. Kemp designed the house in Ladner, British Columbia, Canada. Houses are designed as small as possible but allow for maximum flexibility – including the adaptation of the use of the aging population and the subsequent reduced mobility. The design combines the features of sustainability and the house has achieved Platinum LEED rating from the Canada Green Building Council. Houses envisioned as a simple shelter – provide protection from the elements while maximizing the connection to the natural environment of the river, by breaking down barriers of space / indoor outdoor. Transparency through the building to maximize exposure to resolve conflicts with a view to the north of the desire for maximum sunlight.

LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in key areas:
Sustainable Sites
Site selection and development are important components of a building’s sustainability. The Sustainable Sites category discourages development on previously undeveloped land; seeks to minimize a building's impact on ecosystems and waterways; encourages regionally appropriate landscaping; rewards smart transportation choices; controls stormwater runoff; and promotes reduction of erosion, light pollution, heat island effect and construction-related pollution.

Water Efficiency
Buildings are major users of our potable water supply. The goal of the Water Efficiency category is to encourage smarter use of water, inside and out. Water reduction is typically achieved through more efficient appliances, fixtures and fittings inside and water-conscious landscaping outside.

Energy & Atmosphere
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, buildings use 39% of the energy and 74% of the electricity produced each year in the United States. The Energy & Atmosphere category encourages a wide variety of energy-wise strategies: commissioning; energy use monitoring; efficient design and construction; efficient appliances, systems and lighting; the use of renewable and clean sources of energy, generated on-site or off-site; and other innovative measures.

Materials & Resources
During both the construction and operations phases, buildings generate a lot of waste and use large quantities of materials and resources. The Materials & Resources category encourages the selection of sustainably grown, harvested, produced and transported products and materials. It promotes waste reduction as well as reuse and recycling, and it particulary rewards the reduction of waste at a product’s source.

Indoor Environmental Quality
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that Americans spend about 90% of their day indoors, where the air quality can be significantly worse than outside. The Indoor Environmental Quality category promotes strategies that improve indoor air as well as those that provide access to natural daylight and views and improve acoustics.

Locations & Linkages
The LEED for Homes rating system recognizes that much of a home's impact on the environment comes from where it is located and how it fits into its community. The Locations & Linkages category encourages building on previously developed or infill sites and away from environmentally sensitive areas. Credits reward homes that are built near already-existing infrastructure, community resources and transit – in locations that promote access to open space for walking, physical activity and time outdoors.

Awareness & Education
The LEED for Homes rating system acknowledges that a home is only truly green if the people who live in it use its green features to maximum effect. The Awareness & Education category encourages home builders and real estate professionals to provide homeowners, tenants and building managers with the education and tools they need to understand what makes their home green and how to make the most of those features.

Innovation in Design
The Innovation in Design category provides bonus points for projects that use innovative technologies and strategies to improve a building’s performance well beyond what is required by other LEED credits, or to account for green building considerations that are not specifically addressed elsewhere in LEED. This category also rewards projects for including a LEED Accredited Professional on the team to ensure a holistic, integrated approach to the design and construction process.

Regional Priority
USGBC’s regional councils, chapters and affiliates have identified the most important local environmental concerns, and six LEED credits addressing these local priorities have been selected for each region of the country. A project that earns a regional priority credit will earn one bonus point in addition to any points awarded for that credit. Up to four extra points can be earned in this way.

Evaluating the World Wide Web: A Global Study of Commercial Sites


While commercial applications of the Internet proliferate, particularly in the form of business sites on the World Wide Web, on-line business is still relatively insignificant. One reason is that truly compelling applications have yet to be devised to penetrate the mass market. To help identify approaches that may eventually be successful, one must address the question of what value is being created on the Web. As a first step, this paper proposes a framework to evaluate Web sites from a customer's perspective of value-added. A global study covering 1,800 sites, with representative samples from diverse industries and localities worldwide, is conducted to give a profile of commercial use of the World Wide Web in 1996.


By mid-1996, there were over 250,000 World Wide Web (WWW or Web in short) sites on the Internet, up from 15,000 in 1994 [e-land, 1997a]. Business enterprises–from multinational conglomerates to solo entrepreneurs–are staking their presence on the Internet, all poised to become pioneers in what promises to be the frontier of electronic commerce [Kalakota and Whinston, 1996]. Yet, in spite of estimates ranging from 14.1 million WWW users 16 years of age or older in the US alone [Hoffman, Kalsbeek, and Novak, 1996] to 37.4 million in the US and Canada [CommerceNet, 1997], on-line business is still relatively insignificant. Net merchants were estimated to sell some $750 million worth of goods by the end of 1996, compared to $1.7 trillion for the retail industry and $57 billion for the home shopping industry [e-land, 1997b]. Apart from the obvious difficulties with bandwidth and security [Alpar, 1996], technical issues that can no doubt be resolved eventually, there is the more probing question of what value is being created by information technology in general [Ho, 1994], and on the Web in particular. Certainly, one cannot expect real progress if it is simply the digital replacement of conventional channels such as newspaper ads, TV commercials, phones, and fax [Ho, 1996a].
Since Web-based business models are still in the nascent stage, there are no obvious criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of commercial Web sites. Indeed, the earliest attempts are in the purely subjective form of individual preferences, which are themselves recorded as pages of “Cool Links,”“Top Lists,” and “Hot Sites” (e.g. [USA Today, 1996, June 11].) More organized efforts have since appeared as Web reviews [The Web Magazine, 1997] or popularity polls [IntelliQuest Technology Panel, 1997]. Academic studies are still scarce, with the few examples covering either generic functions of commercial sites [Hoffman, Novak, and Chatterjee, 1995], or applications in specific industries (e.g. hotels ,[Murphy, Forrest, Wotring, and Brymer, 1996] and art galleries [Smith and McLaughlin, 1996]).
This paper proposes a general framework to evaluate Web sites from a customer's perspective of value added. A global study of commercial sites, conducted in May through September, provides a snapshot of the development of this new medium for business in 1996. First, representative samples in North America (US and Canada) from 40 industries, totaling 1000 sites, are evaluated. The results are presented and discussed by industry. Next, 8 other localities worldwide are considered: Australia, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Singapore, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. A sample of 100 sites from 20 industries is studied for each locality. Comparative results are presented in three groupings. Interpretation of the aggregate sample is then given, concluding with implications and suggestions of future directions of this approach to evaluation.

Monday, 15 September 2014

Sony Xperia Z1

The Sony Xperia Z1 is a high-end Android smartphone produced by Sony. The Z1, at that point known by the project code name "Honami", was unveiled during a press conference in IFA 2013 on 4 September 2013. The phone was released in China on 15 September 2013, in the UK on 20 September 2013, and entered more markets in October 2013. On 13 January 2014, the Sony Xperia Z1s, a modified version of the Sony Xperia Z1 exclusive to T-Mobile US, was released in the United States.
Like its predecessor, the Sony Xperia Z, the Xperia Z1 is waterproof and dustproof, and has an IP rating of IP55 and IP58. The key highlight of the Z1 is the 20.7 megapixel camera, paired with Sony's in-house G lens and its image processing algorithm called BIONZ. The phone also comes with Sony's new camera user interface, dedicated shutter button and has an aluminium and glass unibody design.



The Sony Xperia Z1's design is "Omni-Balance", according to Sony, which is focused on creating balance and symmetry in all directions. Xperia Z1 has subtly rounded edges and smooth, reflective surfaces on all sides, which are held together by a skeleton frame made from aluminium. The phone features tempered glass, which is Sony's own and they claim is even tougher than Gorilla Glass, front and back, covered by shatterproof film on front and back. The aluminium power button is placed on the right side of the device. A dedicated hardware shutter key for easy access to camera is provided on the lower right side. The location is said to make operation easier. The metallic look and positioning of the power button is inspired by luxury watch crown design. Easy access to external memory card and sim card slots are provided. The sim card can be removed easily with bare hands. The phone is available in three colours: black, white, and purple. The Xperia Z1 is thicker (8.5mm) and heavier (169g)[1] and has thicker screen bezels than the Xperia Z, even though the two phones share the same screen size. Sony said that the frame had to be enlarged due to the larger than average camera sensor.[2] The camera sensor size is 1/2.3" same as commonly are used in bridge camera.[3] The phone is certified waterproof to 1.5 m for up to 30 minutes.[4] The Z1 is dust resistant with an IP rating of 55 and 58. Unlike the Xperia Z, the Xperia Z1 doesn't have a flap covering its headphone jack, but maintains its waterproofing, a move welcomed by many due to the waterproofing warranty on the Sony Xperia Z being reliant on all ports being sealed. Additional less obvious connectivity includes support for USB OTG allowing for the connection of external USB devices[5][6] as well as support for MHL output connection.[7] The Xperia Z1 comes with 2GB of RAM and Qualcomm's quad-core Snapdragon 800 processor clocked at 2.2 GHz. It also contains a 5.0 inch Sony Triluminos and its X-Reality Engine for better image and video viewing. The Sony Xperia Z1 has a 3000mAh battery.[4]


The Xperia Z1 was initially shipped with Android 4.2 (Jelly Bean) with Sony's custom launcher on top. Some notable additions to the software include Sony's Media applications – Walkman, Album and Videos. NFC is also a core feature of the device, allowing 'one touch' to mirror what is on the smartphone to compatible TVs or play music on a NFC wireless speaker. Additionally, the device includes a battery stamina mode which increases the phone's standby time up to 4 times. Several Google applications (such as Google Chrome, Google Play, Google search (with voice), Google Maps and Google Talk) already come preloaded. Sony also radically changed its camera user-interface; it added new features, such as TimeShift and AR effects.
As of firmware update .290 the bootloader can officially be unlocked without losing camera functionality.
On 28 January 2014 Sony began the roll out of firmware update .136, in addition to bug fixes Sony included the White Balance feature which allows the user to customize the white balance of their display.
On 7 November 2013, Sony Mobile announced via their blog that the Xperia Z1 would receive the Android 4.3 (Jelly Bean) update in December. It also announced that the Android 4.4 update will eventually be released for the Xperia Z1.[8]
On 19 March 2014, the Xperia Z1 received the Android 4.4.2 (KitKat) update.[9]
On 27 June 2014, the Xperia Z1 received the Android 4.4.4 (KitKat) update, which corrected various bugs introduced in the previous Android 4.4.2 update.[10]


Xperia Z1 camera modes
With a focus on camera, Xperia Z1 also introduces many new camera apps.[11]
  • Social live, developed in cooperation with Bambuser, allows users to broadcast their video live via Facebook and gets comments from their friends in real time.
  • Info-eye instantly gives information about the objects captured by Xperia Z1's camera.
  • Timeshift-burst captures 61 frames within 2 seconds, starting before the shutter button is pressed, allowing users to select the best picture. But shooting in 1080p resolution.
  • AR Effect switches camera to AR Effect mode and adds some fun animations to pictures.
  • Creative Effect gives options for various photographic toning effects.
  • Sweep Panorama takes panoramic views of almost 270 degrees viewing perspective.


ModelFCC idCarriers/regionsGSM bandsUMTS bandsLTE bandsNotes
C6906PY7PM-0460North AmericaQuadPenta1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 17[13]
C6916 (Z1s)PY7PM-0590T-Mobile US(USA)QuadPenta4, 17[14]
C6903PY7PM-0450WorldwideQuadPenta1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 20[15]
C6943PY7PM-0650BrazilQuadPenta1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 20This model is identical to C6903 but also supportsISDB-T in Brazil[16]
SOL23PY7PM-0470au by KDDI(Japan)Quad1, 2, 4, 51, 3, 11, 18[17][18]
SO-01FPY7PM-0440NTT DoCoMo(Japan)Quad1, 5, 6, 191, 3, 19, 21[19]
L39tChinaQuaddomestic TD-SCDMA: 34, 39
roaming only UMTS: 1, 2, 5
domestic: 38, 39, 40, 41
roaming only: 3, 7
All variants support four 2G GSM bands 850/900/1800/1900 and five 3G UMTS band 850/900/1700/1900/2100 (except SO-01F model).